This chapter identifies factors which collectively have shaped and promoted changes in three instances in the highly polarised, complex, and often frustrating field of Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus (HIV) and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). The adverse political climate in many countries, funding cutbacks, and a backtracking in progressive policies make it difficult to advance the momentum made earlier in areas such as maternal mortality, HIV infection rates, and contraceptive access. HIV and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) were presented as needing the support of all sectors, and the education of the media as well as parliamentarians, the legal community, the corporate sector, and community groups was prioritised. Civil society in turn worked with the legal community and media, using constitutional rights and social justice as the basis to promote action around AIDS and change in discriminatory laws and policies to deal with stigma.