Prehistoric archaeology has demonstrated that a preference for the colour red has been a persistent feature of human cultures since around 200,000 years ago. Using microscopic examination techniques for ochre nodules and portable items of material culture such as beads, pendants, and figurines advancing over the past quarter of a century, we have become aware of just how ubiquitous the use of red colourants in past cultures has been. In this chapter, we explore the evidence for ochre use in Timor-Leste and the wider archaeological and ethnographic contexts of Southeast Asia. In particular, we consider the importance of the colour red in the portable art traditions of the region.