Since the introduction of IGS in 1998, various commercially available NIR uorescent imaging systems have been developed, either for open, laparoscopic or robotic surgery . Imaging systems all have to deal with specic challenges to optimize their utility, such as enabling su- cient uorescence excitation, low-attenuation optics for NIR light and enough sensitivity to detect low concentrations of NIR uorophores . A high uence rate of the excitation light would be optimal to achieve deep tissue penetration. However, the safety of the technique is partly dependent on illumination levels: high levels can burn tissue and photobleach contrast agents . erefore, uence rates are currently restricted to the range of 10-25 mW/cm2.