This chapter offers a taxonomy of categorisations of pluralism in language education provision, and discusses the origins and effects of the pressures for plurilingual recognition that characterise the past three decades. The discussion draws on a wide range of international settings, North America, Australia, Europe, Pacific Island nations, and Southeast Asia principally, distinguishes between a variety of purposes of education provision, and argues that pluralisation of languages offered and pedagogies employed is matched by a pluralisation of actors legitimately involved in shaping language policy.