This chapter examines the relationship of puppet theatre in Catalonia post-Franco, and in Chile post-Pinochet. It discusses the political context in each country followed by an analysis of the position of puppet theatre in each different country during the 20th century. The chapter considers some groups and performances which arose or were performed during these years, the recurrent themes and responses to dictatorship. It discusses the way in which the political and the world of performance were entwined in order to process the effects of dictatorship through search, recovery and restoration. The Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939 between the left-wing Republicans and the right-wing Nationalists ended with the victory of the Nationalists under General Francisco Franco, leading to a dictatorship for the next 36 years until Franco's death in 1975. The dictatorship was marked by tight control of media, politics and communications; all legislation, at least until 1966, had to be approved by Franco.