With the emergence of new technologies it is becoming easier for states to carry out law enforcement operations and military operations on other states’ territories from their own territory (hereinafter ‘transnational operations’). ‘Boots on the ground’ are redundant. States do not have to be physically present in another state to monitor, spy and ultimately kill people in that state. This may easily be done from a state’s own territory via the internet, a satellite or drones. A prominent example is the United States’ targeted killing of individuals with armed drones, in Pakistan, Yemen and Somalia, for example. Armed drones are fully controlled and operated via satellite, primarily by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), from US territory.1 Another example is the United States’ extraterritorial electronic surveillance and interception of communication in a number of states, including France and Germany.