Seemingly every month or so, there is some new revelation regarding Natio - nal Security Agency (NSA) surveillance. I might have added the adjective ‘shocking’, but by now there is almost nothing in this realm that would surprise anyone. Without attempting to be exhaustive, at the time of this writing, some of the things that are known about such practices are these. The NSA has conducted a massive metadata surveillance programme that catalogues every single phone call and email sent or received by US citizens; the agency has wiretapped the offices of dozens of foreign leaders, including some of those ‘friendly’ to the United States, most notably Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany; tracking chips have been clandestinely inserted into computers during the manufacturing process; and finally, devices have been installed on mobile phone apps – including every child’s favourite game, Angry Birds – in order to gather certain personal inform - ation.1