International responsibility-sharing is the basis on which the whole global refugee system works. I hope that the Australian government will reconsider its approach.

(António Guterres1)

Developed states are increasingly projecting migration control measures beyond their borders through cooperation with developing states, to prevent asylum-seekers from accessing their territory.2 Such migration control arrangements are increasingly complex, often involving cooperation between states and non-state actors.3 In the European context, the now-defunct Italy-Libya Treaty of Friendship, Partnership and Cooperation may be the most clear-cut example.4 Recent developments in bilateral cooperation between Spain and Senegal and Mauritania,5 for example, and the recent European Union and Turkey deal of 18 March 2016, suggest that cooperation-based migration control is on the rise.6