Our present era is characterised by an unprecedented degree of international cooperation, largely couched in the language of international law. Over the past century states have spun a web of bilateral and multilateral treaty law1 and em powered international organisations and adjudicatory institutions, ceding and pooling sovereignty on issues hitherto strictly reserved for the domestic sphere.2 The evolving system of human rights protection is a prime example. New norms and institutions have emerged to advance human rights protection, and several existing adjudicatory and supervisory mechanisms have been expanded and strengthened in recent decades.3 States have willingly submitted themselves to this complex range of treaty norms, with treaty monitoring bodies and regional courts constantly developing and nuancing their interpretation.