In the field of building and construction, similarities between the Nordic countries are most striking. School-based VET is complemented with apprenticeships regulated by the organisations of the labour market. The roots of the traditional crafts are still evident, and the occupational principle is basic for the organisation of work and labour. A main point of the chapter is that the short-term labour strategies, including heavy use of work agencies and of sub-contracting, represent a devastating challenge to this principle and the collective skill formation that it builds on, including its highly valued capability of integration and socialisation of young workers.