The chapter examines what can be learned from the political management of key challenges for vocational education (VET) in the Nordic countries. An examination of major reforms of VET in Sweden and Denmark demonstrates a trade-off for policy between social inclusion and social equality. The mixed VET systems of Norway and Finland demonstrate how strengths and weaknesses can be balanced in relation to common challenges. The chapter concludes that the policy architecture for VET comprises of a set of interrelated trade-offs that must be recognised to develop VET for the future. Lastly, the chapter outlines some future scenarios for the Nordic VET systems.