This chapter addresses the issues by providing an overview of the current right-wing parties in Europe and their electoral penetration, especially following the last EU elections and various national elections in which the general trend has been confirmed. It discusses the main causes that can explain the current success of the extreme right, arguing that populism is among these causes. The chapter offers an empirical focus on 'populism', as an ideology or rhetoric which matches with the anti-elite sentiment increasingly widespread among European citizens, especially in times of economic/ immigration crisis. The 'old' extreme right, referring to fascism, has been identified with ultranationalism, the myth of decadence, the myth of rebirth and conspiracy theories. It provides a comparative case study based on a frame analysis of current right-wing discourses in Germany and Italy, showing the prominent role of the populistic appeals. The chapter concludes by considering future directions that research on the radical right could take.