This line concludes The Proclamation of the Irish Republic, issued by the Easter Rising leaders on April 24, 1916. It has proven to be a call to arms, not just for the men and women of 1916, but for each future generation of Irish republican paramilitaries. From the ashes of the Rising, came the Irish War of Independence (1919-21), the Anglo-Irish Treaty (1921), and the Irish Civil War (1922-23). The Easter insurgency has also since provided the perceived historical mandate for the recurrent campaigns of the Border Campaign2 (1956-62), The Troubles (1969-98), and that of modern-day violent dissident republicans (19943-present day). This history of insurgency and terrorism, which predates even the events of 1916, has shaped the political, social, economic, and cultural identity of modern-day Ireland, both north and south of the border. The centenary of the Rising is being embraced, as a time of celebration and introspection. It provides an opportunity to reflect on the journey that Irish Republicanism embarked upon 100 years ago.