DOI link for Survey Research
Survey Research book
This chapter provides an overview of several key issues in survey research. It first describes the processes of writing questions and some pitfalls to avoid when writing questions. The chapter next discusses issues in choosing question response formats, including levels of measurement and types of response formats. It then considers the advantage of using multi-item response scales, especially for measuring hypothetical constructs. The chapter next discusses the problem of question-related response such as scale ambiguity, category anchoring, estimation biases, respondent interpretation of numerical scales, and primacy and recency effects. It then considers person-related response biases such as social desirability, acquiescence, and extremity. Cultural response sets are also discussed. The chapter concludes with an overview of the principles of questionnaire design, including question order, instructions, and the use of existing measures, and compares the various methods of questionnaire administration, including group administration, online surveys, telephone interviews, and in-person interviews.