The advent of constitutionalism brought about substantial simplification with regard to the status of individuals by inventing citizenship as a unifying factor. Conversely, as far as decision-making is concerned, constitutionalism has unequivocally meant more complexity due to the adoption of pluralism as the very foundation of the democratic government: unlike in the pre-constitutional era, decisions were no longer taken by one but by many, according to pre-defined rules and controlled by the judiciary. Democratic decision-making is the backbone of constitutionalism. At present, democratic decision-making resembles the very first bicycles of the late 19th century: the small rear wheel is direct democracy, the big one is representative democracy, and on it sits the driver (the executive). National experiences with participatory bodies for the purpose of constitutional amendment show substantial differences in terms of aim, composition, timing, and working method of the respective body, as well as political 'seriousness'.