The Philosophy of Human Rights is an emerging field that has attracted the attention of many philosophers whose contributions to this area have helped to clarify the theories and practices in the worldwide promotion of human rights. This chapter defines a "Critical Theory of Human Rights," provides some background to illustrate its development, and explores its relation to the concept of human dignity. It reconstructs modern philosophical theories that have contributed to a critical theory of human rights. The chapter highlights the moral importance of humanity and human dignity in contrast and complementation to a mere emphasis on positive rights. It shows human dignity as a controversial but fruitful concept that needs to be discussed "critically," for it offers an entry point for a consideration of humanity and rights in times of globalization. This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book.