Employer-sponsored employee involvement and participation (EIP) programs have proliferated over the past two decades among American companies (Lewin, Delaney, and Ichniowski 1989; Lawler, Albers, and Ledford 1992; Commission on the Future of Worker-Management Relations 1994a). The impetus behind these programs is the desire of companies to improve productivity and lower cost in response to greater competitive pressure, coupled with evidence from academic research and two decades of experimentation in industry that these programs can indeed deliver higher performance and increased employee job satisfaction (Cotton 1993; Kaufman 1997b; Applebaum, Bailey, Berg, and Kalleberg, 2000)