The German works council, or Betriebsrat, continues to attract considerable attention in the United States because of the precipitous and ongoing decline in unionism in the private sector, where just 9.8 percent of the workforce is currently unionized. The works council is seen by many U.S. observers as offering an alternative form of worker representation that meets the requirements of equity (i.e., industrial democracy) and efficiency. Given these supposed attributes, it should come as no surprise to learn that some have seen it as forming the basis of a participation mandate.