This chapter explores how sociocultural approaches to curriculum, pedagogy and assessment can support educators to recognize all students as the learners they are and can be. It focuses specifically on students often marginalized on the basis of labels like 'special educational needs'. The chapter presents a brief overview of Aotearoa New Zealand's education policy context. It examines traditional Western epistemologies and beliefs that underpin many assumptions and classroom practices for these students. The chapter describes some of the implications and outcomes of these views for these learners, their families and their educators. It stresses the importance of all teachers being able to make use of assessment for learning to support their decisions about pedagogy and curriculum for all students. The chapter focuses on developing inclusive pedagogies that identify and resist deficit discourses, recognize, celebrate and build on learner competence and value collaborative learning. It describes the significant features of narrative assessment.