This chapter aims to provide evidence on the demographics of Special Educational Needs (SEN) in Turkey. Furthermore, the authors aim to share the conclusions of International Classification of Functioning (ICF)-based studies in Turkey in terms of how the model can has been integrated into the education and rehabilitation system for individuals with special needs. Although health care and medical technology standards in Turkey have been improving, the proportion of individuals with SEN is still high at 12.29%. Within this group, 2.58% have orthopaedic disabilities, sight, hearing or speech disabilities and intellectual disabilities. In Turkey, medical staff are the only accountable professionals who are able to provide a traditional medical diagnosis which can be converted into an educational category for eligibility to specialised service provision. Although the ICF-CY is accepted and is mentioned in the Turkish law, the educational evaluation of individuals with SEN still follows a medical model approach and the ICD-10 is still the gold standard classification.