This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the key concepts covered in the preceding chapters of this book. The book explores the state- and human-security challenges that face the international community as a result of the rise of Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. It investigates the role of international organizations in addressing the serious threat posed by the violent Jihadist group. Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) continues to seriously jeopardize state and human security in Iraq, Syria, and regionally by committing deliberate and systematic human-rights abuses. The book presents some fundamental Sunni and Shiite doctrines, rituals, laws, theological positions, and religious organizational structures in an effort to understand key differences between these branches of Islam. Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) identified a relatively late response by the group on the threat of ISIL.