This chapter addresses the role of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in its confrontation against ISIL. It examines the evolution of NATO from a regional, state-security oriented, collective defense system to its attempts to widen its mandate and geostrategic relevance. The chapter explores NATO's abilities in the contemporary security environment. The first post-Cold War transformation was intended to adjust to a new security reality by absorbing new member states and expanding NATO's norms and values into post-Communist territory. The chapter discusses factors that could lead to an organized NATO approach on the terrorist group. NATO is a political and military organization. The founding responsibility of NATO was to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilizations of their peoples, founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law. The American position on Syria was supported by all the major NATO members.