In this chapter, the authors summarize what they know about perfectionism and emotion regulation and develop theory to inform a progressive research agenda for the next era of research in this area. They extend and integrate earlier work that positions perfectionism and emotion regulation within attachment theory, person-centered theory and self psychology. Attachment theory provides a compelling account of how early environments affect development of personality, especially traits associated with self-regulation and performance competencies. The authors draw on the emotion regulation process model to consider how certain emotion regulation strategies might be more effective at different phases, given that perfectionism both generates and enhances stress. Stressful experiences produce cognitive and emotional reactions that have implications for the eventual effects of perfectionism on outcomes such as goals, performance, and mental health. The authors conclude with implications for viewing perfectionism as virtue or vice, and presents conceptual and methodological agenda for applied research aimed at strengthening perfectionistic resilience and lowering perfectionistic risk.