Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality disposition characterized by striving for flawlessness and setting exceedingly high standards of performance accompanied by overly critical evaluations of one's behavior. This chapter presents a brief history of perfectionism theory and research. It introduces the two-factor theory of perfectionism—differentiating perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns—with the intention to provide readers with a conceptual framework that may serve as a "compass" guiding them through the different models and measures of perfectionism. The chapter explores three aspects of perfectionism that are important for a comprehensive understanding of perfectionism: other-oriented perfectionism, perfectionistic self-presentation, and perfectionism cognitions. It presents an overview of key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of the book. The book examines the relationships that multidimensional perfectionism shows with vulnerability and resilience. It focuses on the prevention of perfectionism in youth, examining factors that contribute to the development of perfectionism in children and adolescents and how understanding these factors may help prevent perfectionism.