In what way can identity be seen as one of the key ideas underpinning the study of dance? It is undoubtedly a central concept in western thought: from the aphorism gnothi seauton (know thyself ) inscribed on the pediment of the temple of Apollo in Delphi and adopted as a motto by Socrates, to Amin Maalouf ’s late twentieth-century idea of identités meurtrières (deadly/ murderous identities)1 many authors have chosen to engage with the issue. The notion has been debated in the ﬁelds of philosophy and psychology. It is found in psychoanalysis, anthropology, and sociology. Yet what can it bring to dance studies? Looking at dance and its many practices through the lens of identity may be helpful in our search for a better understanding of the phenomenon and of those engaged in it, as the concept brings together aesthetic and socio-cultural realms. This is especially pertinent in the postcolonial world we live in, when those involved in dance have to deal with issues of greater complexities than in any other historical period. An essay such as this, however, can certainly not be exhaustive. I will investigate only some of the key issues that are worth considering. Hopefully they will bring up useful ideas, which may help our analysis of dance works and dance practitioners as well as of their place within a web of power relationships in a globalized world.