This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts covered in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book outlines some of the fundamental questions posed by the Anthropocene for criminology, and briefly summarises how these issues were tackled by the authors. It explores criminology's contribution to the analysis and debate that flows from the Anthropocene. The book then discusses the international crime of 'ecocide' to target contributors to climate change. It also analyses environmental damage, specifically in the context of climate change. Drawing on a unique combination of green criminology, regulatory studies and a case study analysis, the book examines the normative and legal project of criminalisation of business conduct that breaches ecological limits. It then explores private security and the creation of walls as defensive structures, focusing particularly on the transition period in South Africa. The book focuses on security, looks closely on the future insecurities and conflicts arising from drought, desertification and migration.