This chapter explores the biomechanical, physiological, and time-motion characteristics of Karate Kumite. This includes an analysis of key upper and lower limb Karate movements. Based on this needs analysis, and an in-depth review of injury incidence, an appropriate fitness testing battery for Karate has been provided. In addition, example strength and conditioning sessions have been outlined for athletes who are both experienced and inexperienced in strength and conditioning. An annual strength and conditioning periodisation plan has also been included, summarising the various phases (mesocycles) of training throughout the year, and how these phases impact the focus, volume, and intensity of training.