This chapter aims to identify the athletic demands of fencers so that any physical training programme developed optimally prepares athletes for competition. As an overview, this chapter will initially describe fencing according to four subsections: (1) time motion analysis, (2) physiology, (3) biomechanics, and (4) incidence of injury. An appropriate testing battery will then be subsequently addressed along with suitable training exercises. Thus the training programme that concludes this chapter will be evidence based but, of note, also based on the experiences of the authors who have acted as the sport science and medicine support team (including strength and conditioning, performance analysis and physiotherapy) for British Fencing.