Successful performance within soccer is reliant upon a multitude of interconnecting factors, such as technical, tactical, psycho/social and physical proficiencies. As it is in other sports, the role of the strength and conditioning (S&C) coach is to optimise the training and recovery process to ensure the player minimises the risk of injury and maximises their physical potential during competition. To accomplish this it is essential to understand the demands of the game and associated prevalence of injury; however, relevant contextual and situational factors must be considered. If administered and interpreted appropriately the information gained through regular fitness testing can be used to effectively monitor physical status and help design subsequent training blocks. Only once the S&C coach has considered all the aforementioned factors can programming be accomplished. Successfully planning an S&C programme for soccer is multifaceted and complex, which is confounded by the fact that concurrent strength and endurance training is implemented throughout the year and that training objectives and consequently programme emphases will vary depending on the time of season. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the physical demands experienced during match play, identification of common injuries, recommended fitness tests and a practical guide on how to effectively programme for soccer.