This chapter deals with the study of factional politics in the CCP in terms of four aspects. First, it introduces "factionalism" as a political label in Chinese Communist Party (CCP), politics. Second, it presents "factionalism" as an analytic tool in the studies of CCP politics. Third, the chapter provides a critical assessment of the state of the art in the subfield and reflects on its practical implications. Fourth, it points to promising ways forward for future study and highlights the relevance of the study of factionalism to our understanding of the Xi Jinping Faction. The critical term, "factionalism", has unique connotations and implications when being applied to the study of CCP politics. For China scholars, "factionalism" is an analytic tool for the studies of CCP politics. "Factionalism" in the studies of CCP politics usually refers to activities of political groups within the CCP that are formed on various bases for power contestation.