This chapter, based on field research in Iran, will discuss women’s employment, and, in particular, women and political leadership and women in management and decision-making positions. The chapter will also provide an analysis of the challenges that women face and their bargaining strategies against male-dominated institutions. Based on my interviews, I will analyse the impact of the family, the education system, the media and the law on women’s employment and, in particular, on women in high positions. I will argue that after the 1979 revolution attempts were made to open the path for women’s participation in socio-economic and political arenas. However, conservative traditions, patriarchal attitudes and gender divisions of labour have continued to create obstacles to women occupying high positions. At the same time women have continued to struggle for change (Nejadbahram 2009).