Throughout the modern history of Iran, women have played important political roles. This can be seen in women’s participation in the Tobacco Protest (189092) against the monopoly of production and sale of tobacco by Britain; in the Constitutional Revolution of 1905-11; the oil nationalisation movement of 1951; the secular and nationalist movements of the 1950s and 1960s and the 1979 Islamic Revolution (Koolaee, 2001; Rostami-Povey 2010a: 38-43). During the Constitutional Revolution women played an important role in the struggles against despotism and foreign domination and a number of women’s organisations were formed. During this period, despite urbanisation and socio-economic developments, male domination within the family and society and the authoritarian rule of the state continued. Thus, women’s oppression was based on the authoritarianism of the state and patriarchal gender relations (Hafezian 2002).