ABSTRACT

Despite the fact that political and civil liberties are positively and signi¿cantly correlated with socio-economic aspects (Dasgupta and Weale 1992: 128), indices of well-being tended to focus on socio-economic aspects keeping political and civil spheres separate. Furthermore, Martha Nussbaum considers political control over one’s environment, i.e. ‘being able to participate effectively in political choices that govern one’s life; having the right of political participation, protections of free speak and association’ as one of the central human functional capabilities (Nussbaum 2000: 80). These ideas are reÀected in the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) which evaluates the relative empowerment of women in both political and economic spheres of lives, assessing women’s economic and political participation and decision-making as well as women’s power over economic resources (Human Development Report 2000: 279).