This chapter aims at shedding more light on the balance sheet of outside efforts to bring security to African countries, in particular through the deployment of peace-keeping troops. It is argued that a realistic appreciation must include local perspectives on peace-keepers and their relations to other-state and non-stateactors in the security arena. Peace-keepers do harm, just as they do good. And they would profit from a more systematic evaluation of the local perceptions of their action or passivity. General aspects of peace-keeping in Africa are discussed in an introductory part before three case studies-two short ones on Liberia and Côte d’Ivoire, a more extended one on the Central African Republic-are unfolded. A third part of the chapter collects local viewpoints on foreign troops, including peace-keepers in those three countries.