ABSTRACT

Since its creation in 1993, and because of its increasing political importance, the European Union’s (EU)1 external role (or European foreign policy) has been at the centre of a growing body of literature at the crossroads of European Studies and International Relations on ‘the EU as an international actor’. In particular, the EU has sometimes been pictured as a normative international player proposing its own model to other international actors (Manners 2002). It has also been studied as a skilled international negotiator, leading international talks and mediating between initially opposed parties (Lieb et al. 2011, Van Vooren et al. 2013, Vogler and Bretherton 2006, Wouters et al. 2012).