The majesty of mature trees en masse, that is in groves, is everywhere felt. This chapter discusses several themes that can be discerned here: the ancient wood, the close canopy, the solitary observer and the sense of some divine power preparing the mind for meditation. It shows how the aire and genious of gardens operate upon humane spirits towards virtue and sanctitie a remote preparatory and instrumental working. Melancholy, literally 'dark bile', produced the state of mind that would today be referred to as depression. It could also be understood to induce deep contemplation, seriousness and solemnity. Lengthy meditation suggested seating of some kind. Such arbours and bowers were by design simple and as close to Nature as comfort permitted: they should be distinguished from permanent garden structures such as summerhouses, though no doubt there were variations and compromises.