International seaborne transport is—by definition—an activity that crosses borders. Due to the nature of the service produced, the factors of production are much more mobile than in any other sector (perhaps with the exception of the airline industry). As ships and seamen work all over the world, their link to the ‘home country’ is often very limited and practically always weaker than similar links in any other goods or service production industry. Consequently, shipping is sometimes referred to as ‘the world’s first globalized industry’ (Fink 2011). The shipping industry is, therefore, particularly relevant to the theme of this anthology—analyzing industries in a global environment, rather than studying firms in their local or national surroundings. The focus of this chapter is the declining competitiveness of European shipping in the face of global competition, as well as the political and business responses to this challenge.