Learning takes place as a result of discrete and long-lasting changes in the physical structure of the brain, and understanding the nature of, and mechanisms behind, such changes has been one of the major topics in the history of neuroscience. This chapter will present a brief overview of what is currently known about the way in which learning is represented in the human brain, and specifically how emotional responses can influence this learning process. Initially, a summary of the brain’s structure (on both macro- and microscopic levels) will be presented, outlining how brain cells communicate and the basic functions of the lobes of each hemisphere. In so doing, some common misconceptions and widely accepted myths about the brain will be dispelled. Following this, an overview of learning and memory will detail what has been learned by neuroscientific approaches to the study of how information is retained in the brain. Next, how the brain processes emotion will be discussed, and the impact of emotion on reasoning, decision-making and memory will be explored. Finally, different methods of teaching and learning will be compared in the light of neuroscientific knowledge in order to identify potentially the most appropriate and effective methods of conveying information in a learning environment.