The consensus at the national, regional, and international levels is that migration of health professionals contributes significantly to the inadequate supply of health workers in sub-Saharan Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa bears 25 percent of the global disease burden and only 1.3 percent of the world’s trained health workforce. The impacts of the health worker crisis on the region’s health systems and the implications for progress toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have made the mobility of sub-Saharan African health professionals a priority issue in health human resource policy. This chapter focuses on the migration of physicians and nurses from sub-Saharan Africa, arguably the two most strategically important occupational groups in the health workforce and the most active participants in international mobility, and whose mobility dominates the discourse on the international migration of health workers.