The practice is ensconced among the Creole peoples who have historically benefited somewhat from a more privileged social status than other black groups in South Africa. Yet their social position was an unenviable one, as Creoles were situated within the interstices of the numerically powerful black and economically powerful white population groupings. Not quite black enough to suffer the indignity of carrying a passbook to be allowed to live and work in ‘white’ South Africa, they were neither white enough to have the franchise, nor to enjoy other benefits of the privileged whites. Under apartheid, in existence from 1948 to 1990, the ‘coloured people’, a racialized designation for the Creole population, were forcibly relocated from leafy areas close to the mountain and the city centre to racially segregated townships on the Cape Flats, a desolate wetlands with a dangerously rising water table in the rainy winter months and very few amenities for the ever-increasing communities.