Family policies have a long tradition in the Scandinavian countries, from early 20th century struggles for female suffrage to latter-day gender-neutral discourses and policies in which individual rights have become disconnected from the family to a greater degree than in many other welfare states. This chapter analyses why and under what circumstances changes to perceptions of gender equality and family relations have emerged, with a focus on Swedish family politics from the 1930s to the turn of the millennium. It is based on the assumption that the development of Swedish family policy, and its ambitions for gender equality, has taken place through an interplay of scientific knowledge production and political regulation, as well as being closely linked to the modernization of Swedish society. Moreover, there was a women's movement, and increasing research into gender, which turned the spotlight on gender power relations and emphasized that women's and men's interests are not always the same.