The Joseon Dynasty began its reign over the Korean Peninsula in the fourteenth century. The dynasty implemented a closed-door policy in 1866, but in 1897 Japan used military pressure to force the country open, and the Western powers followed. The dynasty renamed itself the Great Han Empire in 1897 and aimed to establish a modern state system. Japan, however, was determined to place Korea under its sphere of inuence in order, in particular, to protect itself against Russia. In 1905, Japan succeeded in making Korea a protectorate and nally annexed it in 1910. Japanese rule continued until the defeat of the Japanese Empire in 1945.