Most colonial policies from the end of the nineteenth century recognized the necessity of understanding the dierences between the customs, lifestyles, and mentalities of the peoples in the colonized areas in order to rule their colonies eectively and peacefully, and conducted various surveys not only of geographical and industrial resources but also of the sociocultural and historical background of the indigenous peoples. At the same time, the industrialization and redevelopment of rural areas accelerated the recognition of the dierences between the various peoples in the colonizing countries themselves. Thus, the disciplines of folklore, ethnography, and anthropology, along with geography and sociology, while they were subject to the particular interests of investigating scholars, developed through considerations of these dierences, and often contributed to colonial and rural development, though with occasional time lags and political nuances in both colonizing and colonized countries.