Population responses to shifts in economic and social context across the North are not uniform but vary according to gender, age groups and cohorts and are the result of a wide range of diverse processes of work-related mobilities and social and regional changes. The formations of class and gender have become more complex, leading to major immediate challenges for local communities. One of the more challenging processes is related to differences in gender-based aspirations. Peripheral and semi-peripheral regions in the Nordic countries and especially the Westnorden region (Coastal Norway, Iceland, Faro Islands and Greenland), experience a deficit of women, a slow growing or declining population due to outmigration of especially women, and a very high proportion of women with higher education. More females than males tend to migrate permanently away from their home community and region, on one hand to look for job opportunities which better fit their qualifications, but also to seek social and cultural opportunities outside those characterising the traditional economic activities in their communities.