This chapter presents the results of a qualitative empirical study of 40 firms in the Dutch waste industry designed to explore this question. It summarizes the existing literature on corporate deterrence. The research design and methodology then be described. The chapter presents the results of this study and connects the findings with particularities of case study, the waste industry in the Netherlands. It also summarizes and discusses findings and sets out implications, particularly for regulatory policy. As described above, legal enforcement is expensive and requires a lot of enforcement capacity. Moreover, previous research shows that a persistent focus on deterrence as a tool for social control may lead to a 'rat race' increasingly proposing harsher and more deterrent enforcement actions. The data in this study were collected using several research methods. On-site, in-depth interviews were held with environmental managers of waste companies. Environmental managers were chosen as key respondents because they are the most knowledgeable in environmental compliance matters.