ABSTRACT

Introduction When corporations and their managers violate environmental laws and regulations, effects on the health and safety of human life and on our natural environment can be disastrous. As just one of many examples, the dumping of toxic waste by the ship the Probo Koala in Abidjan, Ivory Coast in the summer of 2006 has led to a crisis with social, economic and sanitary consequences (White 2008; Amnesty International and Greenpeace Netherlands 2012; Van Wingerde 2015). People who were exposed to the waste complained of nosebleeds, diarrhoea, nausea, irritated eyes and respiratory problems. Moreover, there was a major displacement of people living near the dump sites. Last but not least, there were demonstrations all over Abidjan and the government of Ivory Coast resigned a couple of weeks after the incident (Amnesty International and Greenpeace Netherlands 2012, pp. 51-67; Van Wingerde 2015, p. 264).