It is difficult to examine the proposed topic of ‘identities and allegiances’ from the perspective of Pisa and Genoa during the period 1204-1261, because neither of these maritime republics took part in the Fourth Crusade and hence they had few contacts with the powers newly established in its aftermath on the territories of the former Byzantine Empire. In comparison with their positions under the Angelos dynasty, both Pisa and Genoa were losers after the 1204 crusade. So it makes sense to consider them together, going back in time to the period from 1182 onwards.