This conclusion presents some closing thoughts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book assesses the existing and emerging governance responses in ideas, instruments, and institutions of the authorities that are most responsible, affected, and concerned. It identifies the innovations introduced, needed, and available to improve African's health. In the face of massive multifaceted movement, the classic Westphalian conception of sovereignty has been an inadequate and thus adaptable response as the core principle on which Africans' health governance does and should take place. Zondi argues that, through its role in imposing structural adjustment programs, the World Bank has weakened African health sovereignty and the public sector in order to allow market forces to dictate public policies such as those affecting the health service delivery. Zondi argues that the neo-liberal nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society of today have come to undermine African states' sovereignty, development, and governance.