ABSTRACT

In recent years, the scientific community has reached a consensus: human activity is largely contributing to the atmospheric build-up of greenhouse gases, increasing global temperatures to unprecedented levels, and causing changes in the hydrologic cycle (Parry et al. 2007; Rosenzweig et al. 2008). These factors will affect access to natural resources, particularly water, arable land, and vegetation as well as vulnerable ecosystems. Regions with relatively low adaptive capacity due to poverty and inequality, inadequate governance structures, high levels of corruption, lack of infrastructure, competing health concerns, and poor service delivery will be most severely affected. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Africa is expected to feel the brunt of the planet’s fury and face the most serious and immediate impacts as a result of climate change. In 1992, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) recognized that the adverse effects of climate change will be felt in states least responsible for the cause of those effects and also least able to adapt to this global assault.