ABSTRACT

The movement of pathogens, people, and the processes that propel them have added new dimensions to the profound health challenges that Africans have long faced. The response by national governments and international organizations, premised on the classic Westphalian concepts of sovereignty and citizenship, appears increasingly inadequate to accurately account for and effectively address the proliferating problems that result (Kirton 2009). There is thus an urgent need to develop and apply innovative concepts, policies, instruments, and institutions to comprehend and cope with the basic health problems afflicting Africans and their fellow humans in the global community beyond (Cooper and Kirton 2009).